Supplying healthy water to the population for an acceptable price is the primary goal of water supply companies. Therefore investments should aim for maximum health benefit. Microbial, chemical and radiological hazards may all threaten water safety and they may require investments at the source, treatment or distribution. The optimal investment decision is generally a complex and delicate trade-off. This study provides a methodology to compare various options and support investment decisions that contribute most to achieving the health based targets.
Stable tap water without chlorine is highly appreciated by customers, as they prefer the taste of it. Use of bottled water in the Netherlands is very low and shows the appreciation of customers for the tap water. The absence of disinfection by-products is an important addition to the concept of ‘Healthy Water’ that water companies communicate with their customers. Healthy water, by definition, doesn’t contain organisms or substances that may cause any illness or physical discomfort to humans, especially to vulnerable people as infants, elderly or immuno-compromised patients. The main goal for the treatment of drinking water is to reach such a level that it complies with this standard for healthy water. The main goal for the distribution is to keep it at this level. In the Netherlands, distribution of tap water without residual disinfectant is common practise for many years now (Smeets et al., 2009), which brings the question up: how to change to chlorine free water.
Critical succes factors for closing the watercycle in Belgium and the Netherlands
Application of nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) results in a concentrate stream for which a destination has to be found. The ideal solution would be a concept without concentrate discharge: zero liquid discharge (ZLD) concept. Therefore there is only solid waste which can be reused or stored as chemical waste in a sustainable way.
Program on environmental risks in NanoNextNL and first results on quantification of fullerene nC60 and related transformation products in water
Climate change risks can affect various components of the Urban Water Cycle (UWC) so that they no longer achieve their objectives. For example, increase of heavy rainfall can lead to overflowing sewers and inefficient wastewater treatment.